Obesity is a major health problem facing modern societies. In addition to physical health, obesity has negative psychological and social effects and is one of the main causes of many chronic diseases. Fortunately, thanks to advances in medicine, bariatric surgery offers an effective solution to this challenging challenge.
Obesity surgery is a treatment method used by overweight individuals to lose weight and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Basically, these surgical operations, which are performed with different methods such as reducing stomach volume or reducing intestinal absorption, help patients reach a healthier weight by accelerating weight loss.
What Is Obesity Surgery?
Obesity surgery is a surgical treatment method used by overweight or obese individuals for weight loss. This method is preferred to alleviate or eliminate health problems caused by obesity in cases where weight loss efforts fail. It provides weight loss by limiting food intake or affecting digestion through anatomical changes in the stomach and intestines.
Which Methods Does Obesity Surgery Use?
Different personalized methods are applied in obesity surgery. The methods used by this surgery are as follows:
Sleeve Gastrectomy: Sleeve gastrectomy is a frequently preferred surgical method in the treatment of morbid obesity. The remaining stomach is transformed into a tubular structure. This new stomach shape has a smaller volume, which allows the patient to eat less food. The advantages and risks of sleeve gastrectomy are as follows:
- Due to the reduced stomach volume, patients may feel full with less food.
- The decrease in the ghrelin hormone after surgery allows patients to control their appetite.
- In the postoperative period, patients start to lose weight.
- It gives positive results especially for patients with diabetes and hypertension.
- As with any surgery, there may be complications such as infection, bleeding, anesthesia risks after sleeve gastrectomy surgery.
- Due to the decrease in stomach volume, it may be difficult for patients to get enough nutrients. Therefore, nutritional supplements and specialized dietitian support may be required.
- Although weight loss is achieved after surgery, maintaining long-term results depends on the patient’s lifestyle.
Gastric Bypass (Roux-en-y gastric bypass): We are talking about a surgical intervention in which a small area just after the intersection of the stomach and the esophagus is bypassed and a large part of the main stomach area is bypassed. During this operation, a suitable section of the small intestine is connected to the stomach area and fixed with sutures. The advantages and risks of gastric bypass are as follows:
- This method both reduces the volume of the stomach and temporarily stops the functioning of part of the intestines. This limits the amount of food consumed and alters nutrient absorption.
- This procedure helps diabetics, especially those who need insulin, to control their blood sugar more effectively.
- This intervention also affects hormonal balance. This offers an additional advantage for diabetic patients.
- As a result of this operation, patients consume less food and their body processes glucose more efficiently.
- Like any surgery, gastric bypass surgery involves surgical risks. General surgical risks such as infection, bleeding, complications related to anesthesia may occur.
- Since eating habits will change after surgery, nutritional deficiencies and vitamin/mineral deficiencies may develop.